Skin will become dark, pigmented due to melanin formation after a long chain of oxidation reaction, while melanin reducer is antioxidants not only reduce oxidation reaction of melanin formation, but also reduce melanin pigments that already formed beneath skin, thus achieve lightening effect.
Vitamin C derivatives including ascorbic acid, L-ascorbic acid, ascorbyl palmitate, ascorbyl glucoside, Magnesium ascorbyl phosphate (MAP), sodium ascorbyl phosphate and etc. Certain plant extracts which high in vitamin C enhance whitening effect in the formulation, such as camu camu, acerola cherry, kakadu plum, prune, quince, mulberry, goji berry/wolfberry, citrus, berries (strawberry, raspberry, bilberry, blueberry, cranberry, açaí berry), pomegranate and etc.
Among these vitamin C derivatives, ascorbyl glucoside is the most stable form and widely applicable in most whitening skin cares brands in the market. For MAP, SAP are less stable, will oxidize and lost function during storage. However, for whitening products containing vitamin C, it is advisable to finish them within 3 months for optimum result after opening. Else you could store them in refrigerator to extend shelf life.
L-ascorbic acid is a non-stable, easily oxidized ascorbic acid derivative, commonly it will be marketed in powder form packed in ampoules. Mix with essence liquid to dilute it upon usage to maximize its effectiveness. It is not only lighten skin within short period, but also stimulate collagen synthesis to firm skin as well as sooth lines.
However, ascorbic acid is low in pH, it is not advisable for sensitive/thin skin to avoid redness and inflammation during high concentration. In addition, L-ascorbic acid should be closed tight to avoid oxidation and utilize within a month.
Some manufacturers emphasize vitamin C packed in liposome or other
nano-particles to stabilize it as delivery system transport to skin without any irritation occur during storage. For an instance, Suki intensive brightening series, Cosme decorte white science and Dr brandt laser lightning series.
Below are the brands emphasize on Vitamin C derivatives as whitening agent
Biotherm White Peel Resurfacing for men
Biotherm White D-tox
Clarins White Plus
Declor aroma white
Neutrogena Fine Fairness
Elizabeth Arden Sheer White
Clinique Derma White
SK II whitening source
Shu Uemura White recovery
Cosme Decorte White Science
Paul & Joe
Givenchy Blanc Parfait
Shiseido White Lucent
Chanel blanc essentiel
Albion Excia White
Mary Kay MelaCEP whitening